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Upscheme: Database schema updates made easy

Easy to use PHP package for updating the database schema of your application and migrate data between versions.

composer req aimeos/upscheme

Table of contents

Why Upscheme

Migrations are like version control for your database. They allow you to record all changes and share them with others so they get the exact same state in their installation.

For upgrading relational database schemas, two packages are currently used most often: Doctrine DBAL and Doctrine migrations. While Doctrine DBAL does a good job in abstracting the differences of several database implementations, it’s API requires writing a lot of code. Doctrine migrations on the other site has some drawbacks which make it hard to use in all applications that support 3rd party extensions.

Doctrine DBAL drawbacks

The API of DBAL is very verbose and you need to write lots of code even for simple things. Upscheme uses Doctrine DBAL to offer an easy to use API for upgrading the database schema of your application with minimal code. Let’s compare some example code you have to write for DBAL and for Upscheme in a migration.

DBAL

$dbalManager = $conn->createSchemaManager();
$from = $manager->createSchema();
$to = $manager->createSchema();

if( $to->hasTable( 'test' ) ) {
	$table = $to->getTable( 'test' );
} else {
	$table = $to->createTable( 'test' );
}

$table->addOption( 'engine', 'InnoDB' );

$table->addColumn( 'id', 'integer', ['autoincrement' => true] );
$table->addColumn( 'domain', 'string', ['length' => 32] );

if( $conn->getDatabasePlatform()->getName() === 'mysql' ) {
	$table->addColumn( 'code', 'string', ['length' => 64, 'customSchemaOptions' => ['charset' => 'binary']] );
} else {
	$table->addColumn( 'code', 'string', ['length' => 64]] );
}

$table->addColumn( 'label', 'string', ['length' => 255] );
$table->addColumn( 'pos', 'integer', ['default' => 0] );
$table->addColumn( 'status', 'smallint', [] );
$table->addColumn( 'mtime', 'datetime', [] );
$table->addColumn( 'ctime', 'datetime', [] );
$table->addColumn( 'editor', 'string', ['length' => 255] );

$table->setPrimaryKey( ['id'] );
$table->addUniqueIndex( ['domain', 'code'] );
$table->addIndex( ['status', 'pos'] );

foreach( $from->getMigrateToSql( $to, $conn->getDatabasePlatform() ) as $sql ) {
	$conn->executeStatement( $sql );
}

Upscheme

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $t ) {
	$t->engine = 'InnoDB';

	$t->id();
	$t->string( 'domain', 32 );
	$t->string( 'code', 64 )->opt( 'charset', 'binary', 'mysql' );
	$t->string( 'label', 255 );
	$t->int( 'pos' )->default( 0 );
	$t->smallint( 'status' );
	$t->default();

	$t->unique( ['domain', 'code'] );
	$t->index( ['status', 'pos'] );
} );

Doctrine Migration drawbacks

Doctrine Migration relies on migration classes that are named by the time they have been created to ensure a certain order. Furthermore, it stores which migrations has been executed in a table of your database. There are two major problems that arise from that.

If your application supports 3rd party extensions, these extensions are likely to add columns to existing tables and migrate data themselves. As there’s no way to define dependencies between migrations, it can get almost impossible to run migrations in an application with several 3rd party extensions without conflicts. To avoid that, Upscheme offers easy to use before() and after() methods in each migration task where the tasks can define its dependencies to other tasks.

Because Doctrine Migrations uses a database table to record which migration already has been executed, these records can get easily out of sync in case of problems. Contrary, Upscheme only relies on the actual schema so it’s possible to upgrade from any state, regardless of what has happend before.

Doctrine Migrations also supports the reverse operations in down() methods so you can roll back migrations which Upscheme does not. Experience has shown that it’s often impossible to roll back migrations, e.g. after adding a new colum, migrating the data of an existing column and dropping the old column afterwards. If the migration of the data was lossy, you can’t recreate the same state in a down() method. The same is the case if you’ve dropped a table. Thus, Upscheme only offers scheme upgrading but no downgrading to avoid implicit data loss.

Integrating Upscheme

After you’ve installed the aimeos/upscheme package using composer, you can use the Up class to execute your migration tasks:

$config = [
	'driver' => 'pdo_mysql',
	'host' => '127.0.0.1',
	'dbname' => '<database>',
	'user' => '<dbuser>',
	'password' => '<secret>'
];

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, 'src/migrations' )->up();

The Up::use() method requires two parameters: The database configuration and the path(s) to the migration tasks. For the config, the array keys and the values for driver must be supported by Doctrine DBAL. Available drivers are:

Some databases require different parameters, most notable SQLite and Oracle:

SQLite:

$config = [
	'driver' => 'pdo_sqlite',
	'path' => 'path/to/file.sq3'
];

Oracle:

$config = [
	'driver' => 'pdo_oci',
	'host' => '<host or IP>',
	'dbname' => '<SID or service name (Oracle 18+)>',
	'service' => true, // for Oracle 18+ only
	'user' => '<dbuser>',
	'password' => '<secret>'
];

If you didn’t use Doctrine DBAL before, your database configuration may have a different structure and/or use different values for the database type. Upscheme allows you to register a custom method that transforms your configration into valid DBAL settings, e.g.:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::macro( 'connect', function( array $cfg ) {

	return \Doctrine\DBAL\DriverManager::getConnection( [
		'driver' => $cfg['adapter'],
		'host' => $cfg['host'],
		'dbname' => $cfg['database'],
		'user' => $cfg['username'],
		'password' => $cfg['password']
	] );
} );

Upscheme also supports several database connections which you can distinguish by their key name:

$config = [
	'db' => [
		'driver' => 'pdo_mysql',
		'host' => '127.0.0.1',
		'dbname' => '<database>',
		'user' => '<dbuser>',
		'password' => '<secret>'
	],
	'temp' => [
		'driver' => 'pdo_sqlite',
		'path' => '/tmp/mydb.sqlite'
	]
];

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, 'src/migrations' )->up();

Of course, you can also pass several migration paths to the Up class:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, ['src/migrations', 'ext/migrations'] )->up();

To enable (debugging) output, use the verbose() method:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, 'src/migrations' )->verbose()->up(); // most important only
\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, 'src/migrations' )->verbose( 'vv' )->up(); // more verbose
\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, 'src/migrations' )->verbose( 'vvv' )->up(); // debugging

Writing migrations

A migration task only requires implementing the up() method and must be stored in one of the directories passed to the Up class:

<?php

namespace Aimeos\Upscheme\Task;
use Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table;


class TestTable extends Base
{
	public function up()
	{
		$this->db()->table( 'test', function( Table $t ) {
			$t->id();
			$t->string( 'label' );
			$t->bool( 'status' );
		} );
	}
}

The file your class is stored in must have the same name (case sensitive) as the class itself and the .php suffix, e.g:

class TestTable -> TestTable.php

There’s no strict convention how to name migration task classes. You can either name them by what they do (e.g. “CreateTestTable”), what they operate on (e.g. “TestTable”) or even use a timestamp (e.g. “20201231_Test”). If the tasks doesn’t contain dependencies, they are sorted and executed in in alphabethical order and the sorting would be:

20201231_Test
CreateTestTable
TestTable

In your PHP file, always include the namespace statement first. The use statement is optional and only needed as shortcut for the type hint for the closure function argument. Your class also has to extend from the “Base” task class or implement the “Iface” task interface.

Dependencies

To specify dependencies to other migration tasks, use the after() and before() methods. Your task is executed after the tasks returned by after() and before the tasks returned by before():

class TestTable extends Base
{
	public function after() : array
	{
		return ['CreateRefTable'];
	}

	public function before() : array
	{
		return ['InsertTestData'];
	}
}

Thus, the order of execution would be:

CreateRefTable -> TestTable -> InsertTestData

Messages

To output messages in your migration task use the info() method:

$this->info( 'some message' );
$this->info( 'more verbose message', 'vv' );
$this->info( 'very verbose debug message', 'vvv' );

The second parameter is the verbosity level and none or v are standard messages, vv are messages that are only displayed if more verbosity is wanted while vvv is for debugging messages. There’s also a third parameter for indenting the messages:

$this->info( 'some message' );
$this->info( 'second level message', 'v', 1 );
$this->info( 'third level message', 'v', 2 );

This will display:

some message
  second level message
    third level message

Prerequisite is that the verbose() method of the Up class has been called before:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, '...' )->verbose()->up();

Schemas

In the up() method, you have access to the database schema using the db() method. In case you’ve passed more than one database configuration to Up::use(), you can access the different schemas by their configuration key:

// $config = ['db' => [...], 'temp' => [...]];
// \Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, '...' )->up();

$this->db();
$this->db( 'db' );
$this->db( 'temp' );

If you pass no config key or one that doesn’t exist, the first configuration is returned (“db” in this case). By using the available methods of the database schema object, you can add, update or drop tables, columns, indexes and other database objects. Also, you can use insert(), select(), update(), delete() and stmt() to manipulate the records of the tables.

After each migration task, the schema updates made in the task are automatically applied to the database. If you need to persist a change immediately because you want to insert data, call $this->db()->up() yourself. The up() method is also available in any table, sequence, and column object so you can call up() everywhere.

In cases you need two different database connections because you want to execute SELECT and INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE statements at the same time, pass TRUE as second parameter to db() to get the database schema including a new connection:

$db1 = $this->db();
$db2 = $this->db( 'db', true );

foreach( $db1->select( 'users', ['status' => false] ) as $row ) {
	$db2->insert( 'oldusers', $row );
}

$db2->delete( 'users', ['status' => false] );

All schema changes made are applied to the database before the schema with the new connection is returned. To avoid database connections to pile up until the database server rejects new connections, always calll close() for new connections created by db( '<name>', true ):

$db2->close();

Database

Accessing objects

You get the database schema object in your task by calling $this->db() as described in the schema section. It gives you full access to the database schema including all tables, sequences and other schema objects:

$table = $this->db()->table( 'users' );
$seq = $this->db()->sequence( 'seq_users' );

If the table or seqence doesn’t exist, it will be created. Otherwise, the existing table or sequence object is returned. In both cases, you can modify the objects afterwards and add e.g. new columns to the table.

Checking existence

You can test for tables, columns, indexes, foreign keys and sequences using the database schema returned by $this->db():

$db = $this->db();

if( $db->hasTable( 'users' ) ) {
    // The "users" table exists
}

if( $db->hasColumn( 'users', 'name' ) ) {
    // The "name" column in the "users" table exists
}

if( $db->hasIndex( 'users', 'idx_name' ) ) {
    // The "idx_name" index in the "users" table exists
}

if( $db->hasForeign( 'users_address', 'fk_users_id' ) ) {
    // The foreign key "fk_users_id" in the "users_address" table exists
}

if( $db->hasSequence( 'seq_users' ) ) {
    // The "seq_users" sequence exists
}

if( $db->hasView( 'testview' ) ) {
    // The "testview" view exists
}

Renaming objects

The database object returned by $this->db() offers the possibility to rename tables, columns and indexes using the renameTable(), renameColumn() and renameIndex():

$db = $this->db();

// Renames the table "users" to "accounts"
$db->renameTable( 'users', 'account' );

// Renames the column "label" to "name" in the "users" table
$db->renameColumn( 'users', 'label', 'name' );

// Renames the column "idx_label" to "idx_name" in the "users" table
$db->renameIndex( 'users', 'idx_label', 'idx_name' );

Removing objects

The database object returned by $this->db() also has methods for dropping tables, columns, indexes, foreign keys and sequences:

$db = $this->db();

// Drops the foreign key "fk_users_id" from the "users_address" table
$db->dropForeign( 'users_address', 'fk_users_id' );

// Drops the "idx_name" index from the "users" table
$db->dropIndex( 'users', 'idx_name' );

// Drops the "name" column from the "users" table
$db->dropColumn( 'users', 'name' );

// Drops the "seq_users" sequence
$db->dropSequence( 'seq_users' );

// Drops the "users" table
$db->dropTable( 'users' );

// Drops the "testview" view
$db->dropView( 'testview' );

If the table, column, index, foreign key or sequence doesn’t exist, it is silently ignored. For cases where you need to know if they exist, use the hasTable(), hasColumn(), hasIndex(), hasForeign() and hasSeqence() methods before like described in the “Checking for existence” section.

Query and modify table rows

The insert(), select(), update() and delete() methods are an easy way to add, retrieve, modify and remove rows in any table:

$db1 = $this->db();
$db2 = $this->db( 'db', true );

foreach( $db1->select( 'users', ['status' => false] ) as $row )
{
	$db2->insert( 'newusers', ['userid' => $row['id'], 'status' => true] );
	$db2->update( 'users', ['refid' => $db2->lastId()], ['id' => $row['id']] );
}

$db2->delete( 'newusers', ['status' => false] );
$db2->close();

If you use select() simultaniously with insert(), update() or delete(), you must create a second database connection because the select() statement will return rows while you send new commands to the database server. This only works on separate connections, not on the same.

You can only pass simple key/value pairs for conditions to the methods which are combined by AND. If you need more complex queries, use the stmt() instead:

$db = $this->db();

$result = $db->stmt()->select( 'id', 'name' )
	->from( 'users' )
	->where( 'status != ?' )
	->setParameter( 0, false )
	->execute();

$db->stmt()->delete( 'users' )
	->where( 'status != ?' )
	->setParameter( 0, false )
	->execute();

$db->stmt()->update( 'users' )
	->set( 'status', '?' )
	->where( 'status != ?' )
	->setParameters( [true, false] )
	->execute();

The stmt() method returns a Doctrine\DBAL\Query\QueryBuilder object which enables you to build more advanced statement. Please have a look into the Doctrine Query Builder documentation for more details.

If you want to use values directly in a SQL statement (use prepared statements for security reasons whenever possible!), you have to quote the values using the `q() method:

$db = $this->db();

$result = $db->stmt()->select( '*' )->from( 'products' )
	->where( 'status = ' . $db->q( $_GET['status'] ) )->execute();

Similarly, if your schema contains reserved keywords, e.g. as column names, you have to quote them as well using the qi() method:

$db = $this->db();

$result = $db->stmt()->select( $db->qi( 'key' ) )->from( 'products' )->execute();

Executing custom SQL

Doctrine only supports a common subset of SQL statements and not all possibilities the database vendors have implemented. To remove that limit, Upscheme offers the exec(), for() and query() methods to execute custom SQL statements not supported by Doctrine DBAL.

To execute custom SQL queries use the query() method which returns a result set you can iterate over:

$sql = 'SELECT id, label, status FROM product WHERE label LIKE ?';
$result = $this->db()->query( $sql, ['test%'] );

foreach( $result->iterateKeyValue() as $key => $row ) {
	// ...
}

For all other SQL statements use the exec() method wich returns the number of affected rows:

$sql = 'UPDATE product SET status=? WHERE status=?';
$num = $this->db()->exec( $sql, [1, 0] );

Using the for() method, you can also execute statements depending on the database platform:

$this->db()->for( 'mysql', 'CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX idx_text ON product (text)' );

Specifying the database platform is very useful for creating special types of indexes where the syntax differs between the database implementations.

Database methods

DB::__call()

Calls custom methods or passes unknown method calls to the Doctrine schema object

public function __call( string $method, array $args )

Examples:

You can register custom methods that have access to the class properties of the Upscheme DB object:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\DB::macro( 'hasFkIndexes', function( $val ) {
	return $this->to->hasExplicitForeignKeyIndexes();
} );

$db->hasFkIndexes();

Available class properties are:

$this->from
Original Doctrine database schema representing the current database
$this->to
Doctrine database schema containing the changes made up to now
$this->conn
Doctrine database connection
$this->up
Upscheme object

Furthermore, you can call any Doctrine schema method directly, e.g.:

$db->hasExplicitForeignKeyIndexes();

DB::close()

Closes the database connection

public function close() : void

Call close() only for DB schema objects created with $this->db( '...', true ). Otherwise, you will close the main connection and DBAL has to reconnect to the server which will degrade performance!

Examples:

$db = $this->db( 'temp', true );
$db->dropTable( 'test' );
$db->close();

DB::delete()

Deletes the records from the given table

public function delete( string $table, array $conditions = null ) : self

Warning: The condition values are escaped but the table name and condition column names are not! Only use fixed strings for table name and condition column names but no external input!

Examples:

$db->delete( 'test', ['status' => false, 'type' => 'old'] );
$db->delete( 'test' );

Several conditions passed in the second parameter are combined by “AND”. If you need more complex statements, use the stmt() method instead.

DB::dropColumn()

Drops the column given by its name if it exists

public function dropColumn( string $table, $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropColumn( 'test', 'oldcol' );
$db->dropColumn( 'test', ['oldcol', 'oldcol2'] );

If the column or one of the columns doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::dropForeign()

Drops the foreign key constraint given by its name if it exists

public function dropForeign( string $table, $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropForeign( 'test', 'fk_old' );
$db->dropForeign( 'test', ['fk_old', 'fk_old2'] );

If the foreign key constraint or one of the constraints doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::dropIndex()

Drops the index given by its name if it exists

public function dropIndex( string $table, $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropIndex( 'test', 'idx_old' );
$db->dropIndex( 'test', ['idx_old', 'idx_old2'] );

If the index or one of the indexes doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::dropSequence()

Drops the sequence given by its name if it exists

public function dropSequence( $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropSequence( 'seq_old' );
$db->dropSequence( ['seq_old', 'seq_old2'] );

If the sequence or one of the sequences doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::dropTable()

Drops the table given by its name if it exists

public function dropTable( $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropTable( 'test' );
$db->dropTable( ['test', 'test2'] );

If the table or one of the tables doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::dropView()

Drops the view given by its name if it exists

public function dropView( $name ) : self

Examples:

$db->dropView( 'test' );
$db->dropView( ['test', 'test2'] );

If the view or one of the views doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored.

DB::exec()

Executes a custom SQL statement

public function exec( string $sql, array $params = [], array $types = [] ) : int

The database changes are not applied immediately so always call up() before executing custom statements to make sure that the tables you want to use has been created before!

Examples:

$sql = 'UPDATE product SET status=? WHERE status=?';
$num = $this->db()->exec( $sql, [1, 0] );

DB::for()

Executes a custom SQL statement if the database is of the given type

public function for( $type, $sql ) : self

Available database platform types are:

The database changes are not applied immediately so always call up() before executing custom statements to make sure that the tables you want to use has been created before!

Examples:

$db->for( 'mysql', 'CREATE INDEX idx_test_label ON test (label(16))' );

$db->for( ['mysql', 'sqlite'], [
	'DROP INDEX unq_test_status',
	'UPDATE test SET status = 0 WHERE status IS NULL',
] );

DB::hasColumn()

Checks if the column or columns exists

public function hasColumn( string $table, $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasColumn( 'test', 'testcol' );
$db->hasColumn( 'test', ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );

DB::hasForeign()

Checks if the foreign key constraints exists

public function hasForeign( string $table, $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasForeign( 'test', 'fk_testcol' );
$db->hasForeign( 'test', ['fk_testcol', 'fk_testcol2'] );

DB::hasIndex()

Checks if the indexes exists

public function hasIndex( string $table, $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasIndex( 'test', 'idx_test_col' );
$db->hasIndex( 'test', ['idx_test_col', 'idx_test_col2'] );

DB::hasSequence()

Checks if the sequences exists

public function hasSequence( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasSequence( 'seq_test' );
$db->hasSequence( ['seq_test', 'seq_test2'] );

DB::hasTable()

Checks if the tables exists

public function hasTable( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasTable( 'test' );
$db->hasTable( ['test', 'test2'] );

DB::hasView()

Checks if the views exists

public function hasView( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$db->hasView( 'test' );
$db->hasView( ['test', 'test2'] );

DB::insert()

Inserts a record into the given table

	public function insert( string $table, array $data ) : self

Examples:

$db->insert( 'test', ['label' => 'myvalue', 'status' => true] );

DB::lastId()

Returns the ID of the last inserted row into any database table

public function lastId( string $seq = null ) : string

Examples:

$db->lastId();
$db->lastId( 'seq_test' );

DB::name()

Returns the name of the database

public function name() : string

Examples:

$db->name();

DB::q()

Quotes a value

public function q( $value, $type = \Doctrine\DBAL\ParameterType::STRING ) : string

Examples:

$result = $db->stmt()->select( '*' )->from( 'products' )
	->where( 'status = ' . $db->q( $_GET['status'] ) )->execute();

DB::qi()

Quotes a database identifier

public function qi( string $identifier ) : string

Examples:

$result = $db->stmt()->select( $db->qi( 'key' ) )->from( 'products' )->execute();

DB::query()

Executes a custom SQL query

public function query( string $sql, array $params = [], array $types = [] ) : \Doctrine\DBAL\Result

Examples:

$result = $db->query( 'SELECT id, label, status FROM product WHERE label LIKE ?', ['test%'] );

foreach( $result->iterateKeyValue() as $key => $row ) {
	// ...
}

DB::renameColumn()

Renames a column or a list of columns

public function renameColumn( string $table, $from, string $to = null ) : self

Limitations

Examples:

// single column
$db->renameColumn( 'testtable', 'test_col', 'test_column' );

// rename several columns at once
$db->renameColumn( 'testtable', ['tcol' => 'testcol', 'tcol2' => 'testcol2'] );

DB::renameIndex()

Renames a column or a list of columns

public function renameIndex( string $table, $from, string $to = null ) : self

Examples:

// single index
$db->renameIndex( 'testtable', 'idxcol', 'idx_column' );

// rename several indexes at once
$db->renameIndex( 'testtable', ['idxcol' => 'idx_column', 'idxcol2' => 'idx_column2'] );

DB::renameTable()

Renames a table or a list of tables

public function renameTable( $from, string $to = null ) : self

Examples:

// single table
$db->renameTable( 'testtable', 'newtable' );

// rename several tables at once
$db->renameTable( ['testtable' => 'newtable', 'oldtable' => 'testtable2'] );

DB::select()

Returns the records from the given table

public function select( string $table, array $conditions = null ) : array

Examples:

$db->select( 'test', ['status' => false, 'type' => 'old'] );
$db->select( 'test' );

Several conditions passed in the second parameter are combined by “AND”. If you need more complex statements, use the stmt() method instead.

DB::sequence()

Returns the sequence object for the given name

public function sequence( string $name, \Closure $fcn = null ) : Sequence

If the sequence doesn’t exist yet, it will be created. To persist the changes in the database, you have to call up().

Examples:

$sequence = $db->sequence( 'seq_test' );

$sequence = $db->sequence( 'seq_test', function( $seq ) {
	$seq->start( 1000 )->step( 2 )->cache( 100 );
} )->up();

DB::stmt()

Returns the query builder for a new SQL statement

public function stmt() : \Doctrine\DBAL\Query\QueryBuilder

Examples:

$db->stmt()->delete( 'test' )->where( 'stat = ?' )->setParameter( 0, false )->execute();
$db->stmt()->update( 'test' )->set( 'stat', '?' )->setParameter( 0, true )->execute();
$result = $db->stmt()->select( 'id', 'code' )->from( 'test' )->where( 'stat = 1' )->execute();

while( $row = $result->fetchAssociative() ) {
    $id = $row['id'];
}

For more details about the available Doctrine QueryBuilder methods, please have a look at the Doctrine documentation.

DB::table()

Returns the table object for the given name

public function table( string $name, \Closure $fcn = null ) : Table

If the table doesn’t exist yet, it will be created. To persist the changes in the database, you have to call up().

Examples:

$table = $db->table( 'test' );

$table = $db->table( 'test', function( $t ) {
	$t->id();
	$t->string( 'label' );
	$t->bool( 'status' );
} )->up();

DB::type()

Returns the type of the database

public function type() : string

Possible values are:

Examples:

$type = $db->type();

DB::up()

Applies the changes to the database schema

public function up() : self

Examples:

$db->up();

DB::update()

Updates the records from the given table

public function update( string $table, array $data, array $conditions = null ) : self

Examples:

$db->update( 'test', ['status' => true] );
$db->update( 'test', ['status' => true], ['status' => false, 'type' => 'new'] );

Several conditions passed in the second parameter are combined by “AND”. If you need more complex statements, use the stmt() method instead.

DB::view()

Creates a view with the given name if it doesn’t exist yet

public function view( string $name, string $sql, $for = null ) : self

If the view doesn’t exist yet, it will be created. Otherwise, nothing will happen.

Examples:

$db->view( 'testview', 'SELECT * FROM testtable' );
$db->view( 'testview', 'SELECT id, label, status FROM testtable WHERE status = 1' );
$db->view( 'testview', 'SELECT * FROM `testtable` WHERE `status` = 1', 'mysql' );

Tables

Creating tables

The table scheme object you get by calling table() in your migration task gives you full access to the table and you can add, change or remove columns, indexes and foreign keys, e.g.:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->id();
	$table->string( 'label' );
	$table->col( 'status', 'tinyint' )->default( 0 );
} );

Besides the col() method which can add columns of arbitrary types, there are some shortcut methods for types available in all database server implementations:

Column type Description
bigid BIGINT column with a sequence/autoincrement and a primary key assigned
bigint BIGINT column with a range from −9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807
binary VARBINARY column with up to 255 bytes
blob BLOB column with up to 2GB
bool BOOLEAN/BIT/NUMBER colum, alias for “boolean”
boolean BOOLEAN/BIT/NUMBER colum for TRUE/FALSE resp. 0/1 values
char CHAR column with a fixed number of characters
date DATE column in ISO date format (“YYYY-MM-DD) without time and timezone
datetime DATETIME column in ISO date/time format (“YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss” )
tablesdatetimetz DATETIMETZ column in ISO date/time format but with varying timezone format
decimal DECIMAL column for numeric data with fixed-point precision (string in PHP)
float FLOAT column for numeric data with a 8-byte floating-point precision
guid Globally unique identifier with 36 bytes
id INTEGER column with a sequence/autoincrement and a primary key assigned
int INTEGER colum, alias for “integer”
integer INTEGER colum with a range from −2147483648 to 2147483647
json JSON column for UTF-8 encoded JSON data
smallint INTEGER colum with a range from −32768 to 32767
string VARCHAR column with up to 255 characters
text TEXT/CLOB column with up to 2GB characters
time TIME column in 24 hour “HH:MM” fromat, e.g. “05:30” or “22:15”
uuid Globally unique identifier with 36 bytes, alias for “guid”

Setting table options

MySQL (or MariaDB, etc.) supports a few options to define aspects of the table. The engine option will specify the storage engine used for the table:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->opt( 'engine', 'InnoDB' );
} );

As a shortcut, it’s also possible to set the option as property:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->engine = 'InnoDB';
} );

To create a temporary table, use:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->temporary = true;
} );

It’s also possible to set the default charset and collation for string and text columns:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->charset = 'utf8mb4';
	$table->collation = 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci';
} );

Note: Collations are also supported by PostgreSQL and SQL Server but their values are different. Thus, it’s not possible to use the same value for all server types. To circumvent that problem, use the column opt() method and pass the database server type as third parameter:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->opt( 'charset', 'utf8mb4', 'mysql' );
	$table->opt( 'collation', 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci', 'mysql' );
} );

Now, the default charset and collation will be only set for MySQL database servers (or MariaDB and similar forks).

In case you need to know the current values of the table options:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	// return the used table engine (only MySQL, MariaDB, etc.)
	$engine = $table->engine;

	// returns TRUE if it's a temporary table
	$isTemp = $table->temporary;

	// return the current charset
	$charset = $table->charset;

	// return the current collation
	$collation = $table->collation;
} );

Checking table existence

To check if a table already exists, use the hasTable() method:

if( $this->db()->hasTable( 'users' ) ) {
    // The "users" table exists
}

You can check for several tables at once too:

if( $this->db()->hasTable( ['users', 'addresses'] ) ) {
    // The "users" and "addresses" tables exist
}

The hasTable() method will only return TRUE if all tables exist.

Changing tables

Besides creating and accessing tables, the table() method from the schema object can be used to update a table schema too. It accepts the table name and a closure that will receive the table schema object.

Let’s create a table named test first including three columns:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->id();
	$table->string( 'label' );
	$table->col( 'status', 'tinyint' )->default( 0 );
} );

Now, we want to update the table in another migration by adding a code column and changing the default value of the existing status column:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code' );
	$table->col( 'status', 'tinyint' )->default( 1 );
} );

The changes will be persisted in the database as soon as the table() method returns so there’s no need to call up() yourself afterwards. For the available column types and options, refer to the columns section.

Renaming tables

The database object returned by $this->db() can rename tables when using the renameTable() method:

// Renames the table "users" to "accounts"
$this->db()->renameTable( 'users', 'account' );

It’s also possible to rename several tables at once if you pass an associative array which old and new names as key/value pairs:

// Renames the table "users" to "accounts" and "blog" to "posts"
$this->db()->renameTable( ['users' => 'account', 'blog' => 'posts'] );

Dropping tables

To remove a table, you should use the dropTable() method from the database schema:

$this->db()->dropTable( 'users' );

You can also drop several tables at once by passing the list as array:

$this->db()->dropTable( ['users', 'addresses'] );

Tables are only removed if they exist. If a table doesn’t exist any more, no error is reported:

$this->db()->dropTable( 'notexist' );

In that case, the method call will succeed but nothing will happen.

Table methods

Table::__call()

Calls custom methods or passes unknown method calls to the Doctrine table object

public function __call( string $method, array $args )

Examples:

You can register custom methods that have access to the class properties of the Upscheme Table object:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table::macro( 'addConstraint', function( array $columns ) {
	return $this->to->addUniqueConstraint( $columns );
} );

$table->addConstraint( ['col1', 'col2'] );

Available class properties are:

$this->table
Doctrine table schema
$this->up
Upscheme object

Furthermore, you can call any Doctrine table method directly, e.g.:

$table->addUniqueConstraint( ['col1', 'col2'] );

Table::__get()

Returns the value for the given table option

public function __get( string $name )

The list of available table options are:

Examples:

$engine = $table->engine;

// same as
$engine = $table->opt( 'engine' );

Table::__set()

Sets the new value for the given table option

public function __set( string $name, $value )

The list of available table options are:

Examples:

$table->engine = 'InnoDB';

// same as
$table->opt( 'engine', 'InnoDB' );

Table::bigid()

Creates a new ID column of type “bigint” or returns the existing one

public function bigid( string $name = null ) : Column

The column gets a sequence (autoincrement) and a primary key assigned automatically. If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->bigid();
$table->bigid( 'uid' );

Table::bigint()

Creates a new column of type “bigint” or returns the existing one

public function bigint( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->bigint( 'testcol' );

Table::binary()

Creates a new column of type “binary” or returns the existing one

public function binary( string $name, int $length = 255 ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->binary( 'testcol' );
$table->binary( 'testcol', 32 );

Table::blob()

Creates a new column of type “blob” or returns the existing one

public function blob( string $name, int $length = 0x7fff ) : Column

The maximum length of a “blob” column is 2GB. If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->blob( 'testcol' );
$table->blob( 'testcol', 0x7fffffff );

Table::bool()

Creates a new column of type “boolean” or returns the existing one

public function bool( string $name ) : Column

This method is an alias for boolean(). If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->bool( 'testcol' );

Table::boolean()

Creates a new column of type “boolean” or returns the existing one

public function boolean( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->boolean( 'testcol' );

Table::char()

Creates a new column of type “char” with a fixed type or returns the existing one

public function char( string $name, int $length ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->char( 'testcol', 3 );

Table::col()

Creates a new column or returns the existing one

public function col( string $name, string $type = null ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->col( 'testcol' );
$table->col( 'testcol', 'tinyint' );

Table::date()

Creates a new column of type “date” or returns the existing one

public function date( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->date( 'testcol' );

Table::datetime()

Creates a new column of type “datetime” or returns the existing one

public function datetime( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->datetime( 'testcol' );

Table::datetimetz()

Creates a new column of type “datetimetz” or returns the existing one

public function datetimetz( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->datetimetz( 'testcol' );

Table::decimal()

Creates a new column of type “decimal” or returns the existing one

public function decimal( string $name, int $digits, int $decimals = 2 ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->decimal( 'testcol', 10 ); // 10 digits incl. 2 decimals
$table->decimal( 'testcol', 10, 4 ); // 10 digits incl. 4 decimals

Table::dropColumn()

Drops the column given by its name if it exists

public function dropColumn( $name ) : self

If the column or one of the columns doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored. The change won’t be applied until the migration task finishes or up() is called.

Examples:

$table->dropColumn( 'testcol' );
$table->dropColumn( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );

Table::dropIndex()

Drops the index given by its name if it exists

public function dropIndex( $name ) : self

If the index or one of the indexes doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored. The change won’t be applied until the migration task finishes or up() is called.

Examples:

$table->dropIndex( 'idx_test_col' );
$table->dropIndex( ['idx_test_col', 'idx_test_col2'] );

Table::dropForeign()

Drops the foreign key constraint given by its name if it exists

public function dropForeign( $name ) : self

If the foreign key constraint or one of the constraints doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored. The change won’t be applied until the migration task finishes or up() is called.

Examples:

$table->dropForeign( 'fk_test_col' );
$table->dropForeign( ['fk_test_col', 'fk_test_col2'] );

Table::dropPrimary()

Drops the primary key if it exists

public function dropPrimary() : self

If the primary key doesn’t exist, it will be silently ignored. The change won’t be applied until the migration task finishes or up() is called.

Examples:

$table->dropPrimary();

Table::float()

Creates a new column of type “float” or returns the existing one

public function float( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->float( 'testcol' );

Table::foreign()

Creates a new foreign key or returns the existing one

public function foreign( $localcolumn, string $foreigntable, $foreigncolumn = 'id', string $name = null ) : Foreign

The length of the foreign key name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'test' );
$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'test', 'uid' );
$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'test', 'id', 'fk_test_pid' );
$table->foreign( ['parentid', 'siteid'], 'test', ['uid', 'siteid'] );

Table::guid()

Creates a new column of type “guid” or returns the existing one

public function guid( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->guid( 'testcol' );

Table::hasColumn()

Checks if the column exists

public function hasColumn( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$table->hasColumn( 'testcol' );
$table->hasColumn( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );

Table::hasIndex()

Checks if the index exists

public function hasIndex( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$table->hasIndex( 'idx_test_col' );
$table->hasIndex( ['idx_test_col', 'idx_test_col2'] );

Table::hasForeign()

Checks if the foreign key constraint exists

public function hasForeign( $name ) : bool

Examples:

$table->hasForeign( 'fk_test_col' );
$table->hasForeign( ['fk_test_col', 'fk_test_col2'] );

Table::id()

Creates a new ID column of type “integer” or returns the existing one

public function id( string $name = null ) : Column

The column gets a sequence (autoincrement) and a primary key assigned automatically. If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->id();
$table->id( 'uid' );

Table::index()

Creates a new index or replaces an existing one

public function index( $columns, string $name = null ) : self

The length of the index name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

$table->index( 'testcol' );
$table->index( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );
$table->index( 'testcol', 'idx_test_testcol );

Table::int()

Creates a new column of type “integer” or returns the existing one

public function int( string $name ) : Column

This method is an alias for integer(). If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->int( 'testcol' );

Table::integer()

Creates a new column of type “integer” or returns the existing one

public function integer( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->integer( 'testcol' );

Table::json()

Creates a new column of type “json” or returns the existing one

public function json( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->json( 'testcol' );

Table::name()

Returns the name of the table

public function name() : string

Examples:

$tablename = $table->name();

Table::opt()

Sets a custom schema option or returns the current value

public function opt( string $name, $value = null )

Available custom schema options are:

Examples:

$charset = $table->opt( 'charset' );
$table->opt( 'charset', 'utf8' )->opt( 'collation', 'utf8_bin' );

// Magic methods:
$charset = $table->charset;
$table->charset = 'binary';

Table::primary()

Creates a new primary index or replaces an existing one

public function primary( $columns, string $name = null ) : self

The length of the index name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

$table->primary( 'testcol' );
$table->primary( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );
$table->primary( 'testcol', 'pk_test_testcol' );

Table::renameColumn()

Renames a column or a list of columns

public function renameColumn( $from, string $to = null ) : self

Examples:

// single column
$table->renameColumn( 'test_col', 'test_column' );

// rename several columns at once
$table->renameColumn( ['tcol' => 'testcol', 'tcol2' => 'testcol2'] );

Table::renameIndex()

Renames an index or a list of indexes

public function renameIndex( $from, string $to = null ) : self

The length of the indexes name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

// generate a new name automatically
$table->renameIndex( 'test_col_index' );

// custom name
$table->renameIndex( 'test_col_index', 'idx_test_col' );

// rename several indexes at once
$table->renameIndex( ['test_col_index' => null, 'test_index' => 'idx_test_col'] );

Table::smallint()

Creates a new column of type “smallint” or returns the existing one

public function smallint( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->smallint( 'testcol' );

Table::spatial()

Creates a new spatial index or replaces an existing one

public function spatial( $columns, string $name = null ) : self

The length of the index name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

$table->spatial( 'testcol' );
$table->spatial( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );
$table->spatial( 'testcol', 'idx_test_testcol' );

Table::string()

Creates a new column of type “string” or returns the existing one

public function string( string $name, int $length = 255 ) : Column

This type should be used for up to 255 characters. For more characters, use the “text” type. If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->string( 'testcol' );
$table->string( 'testcol', 32 );

Table::text()

Creates a new column of type “text” or returns the existing one

public function text( string $name, int $length = 0xffff ) : Column

The maximum length of a “text” column is 2GB. If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->text( 'testcol' );
$table->text( 'testcol', 0x7fffffff );

Table::time()

Creates a new column of type “time” or returns the existing one

public function time( string $name ) : Column

If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created. This datatype is not available when using Oracle databases.

Examples:

$table->time( 'testcol' );

Table::unique()

Creates a new unique index or replaces an existing one

public function unique( $columns, string $name = null ) : self

The length of the index name shouldn’t be longer than 30 characters for maximum compatibility.

Examples:

$table->unique( 'testcol' );
$table->unique( ['testcol', 'testcol2'] );
$table->unique( 'testcol', 'unq_test_testcol' );

Table::uuid()

Creates a new column of type “guid” or returns the existing one

public function uuid( string $name ) : Column

This method is an alias for guid(). If the column doesn’t exist yet, it will be created.

Examples:

$table->uuid( 'testcol' );

Table::up()

Applies the changes to the database schema

public function up() : self

Examples:

$table->up();

Columns

Adding columns

The column schema object you get by calling col() in your migration task gives you access to all column properties. There are also shortcuts available for column types supported by all databases. Each column can be changed by one or more modifier methods and you can also add indexes to single columns, e.g.:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->id()->unsigned( true );
	$table->string( 'label' )->index();
	$table->col( 'status', 'tinyint' )->default( 0 );
} );

The example will add the following columns:

Available column types

There are some shortcut methods for column types available in all database server implementations:

Column type Description
bigid BIGINT column with a sequence/autoincrement and a primary key assigned
bigint BIGINT column with a range from −9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807
binary VARBINARY column with up to 255 bytes
blob BLOB column with up to 2GB
bool BOOLEAN/BIT/NUMBER colum, alias for “boolean”
boolean BOOLEAN/BIT/NUMBER colum for TRUE/FALSE resp. 0/1 values
char CHAR column with a fixed number of characters
date DATE column in ISO date format (“YYYY-MM-DD) without time and timezone
datetime DATETIME column in ISO date/time format (“YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss” )
tablesdatetimetz DATETIMETZ column in ISO date/time format but with varying timezone format
decimal DECIMAL column for numeric data with fixed-point precision (string in PHP)
float FLOAT column for numeric data with a 8-byte floating-point precision
guid Globally unique identifier with 36 bytes
id INTEGER column with a sequence/autoincrement and a primary key assigned
int INTEGER colum, alias for “integer”
integer INTEGER colum with a range from −2147483648 to 2147483647
json JSON column for UTF-8 encoded JSON data
smallint INTEGER colum with a range from −32768 to 32767
string VARCHAR column with up to 255 characters
text TEXT/CLOB column with up to 2GB characters
time TIME column in 24 hour “HH:MM” fromat, e.g. “05:30” or “22:15”
uuid Globally unique identifier with 36 bytes, alias for “guid”

To add database specific column types, use the col() method, e.g.:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->col( 'status', 'tinyint' );
} );

Column modifiers

It’s also possible to change column definitions by calling one or more column modifier methods:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->int( 'number' )->null( true )->unsigned( true );
} );

The available column modifier methods are:

Column modifier Description
autoincrement(true) Set INTEGER columns as auto-incrementing (alias for seq())
charset(‘utf8’) The character set used by the column (MySQL)
collation(‘binary’) The column collation (MySQL/PostgreSQL/Sqlite/SQLServer but not compatible)
comment(‘comment’) Add a comment to a column (MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQLServer)
default(1) Default value of the column if no value was specified (default: NULL)
fixed(true) If string or binary columns should have a fixed length
index(‘idx_col’) Add an index to the column, index name is optional
length(32) The max. length of string and binary columns
null(true) Allow NULL values to be inserted into the column
precision(12) The max. number of digits stored in DECIMAL and FLOAT columns incl. decimal digits
primary(‘pk_col’) Add a primary key to the column, primary key name is optional
scale(2) The exact number of decimal digits used in DECIMAL and FLOAT columns
seq(true) Set INTEGER columns as auto-incrementing if no value was specified
spatial(‘idx_col’) Add a spatial (geo) index to the column, index name is optional
unique(‘unq_col’) Add an unique index to the column, index name is optional
unsigned(true) Allow unsigned INTEGER values only (MySQL)

To set custom schema options for columns, use the opt() method, e.g.:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code' )->opt( 'collation', 'utf8mb4' );
} );

It’s even possible to set column modifiers for a specific database implementation by passing the database type as third parameter:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code' )->opt( 'collation', 'utf8mb4', 'mysql' );
} );

Checking column existence

To check if a column already exists, use the hasColumn() method:

if( $this->db()->hasColumn( 'users', 'name' ) ) {
    // The "name" column in the "users" table exists
}

You can check for several columns at once too. In that case, the hasColumn() method will only return TRUE if all columns exist:

if( $this->db()->hasColumn( 'users', ['name', 'status'] ) ) {
    // The "name" and "status" columns in the "users" table exists
}

If you already have a table object, you can use hasColumn() as well:

if( $table->hasColumn( 'name' ) ) {
    // The "name" column in the table exists
}

if( $table->hasColumn( ['name', 'status'] ) ) {
    // The "name" and "status" columns in the table exists
}

Besides columns, you can also check if column modifiers are set and which value they have:

if( $table->string( 'code' )->null() ) {
	// The "code" columns is nullable
}

Retrieving the current column modifier values is possible using these methods:

Column modifier Description
autoincrement() TRUE if the the column is auto-incrementing (alias for seq())
charset() Used character set (MySQL)
collation() Used collation (MySQL/PostgreSQL/Sqlite/SQLServer but not compatible)
comment() Comment associated to the column (MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQLServer)
default() Default value of the column
fixed() TRUE if the string or binary column has a fixed length
length() The maximum length of the string or binary column
null() TRUE if NULL values are allowed
precision() The maximum number of digits stored in DECIMAL and FLOAT columns incl. decimal digits
scale() The exact number of decimal digits used in DECIMAL and FLOAT columns
seq() TRUE if the column is auto-incrementing
unsigned() TRUE if only unsigned INTEGER values are allowed (MySQL)

To check for non-standard column modifiers, use the opt() method without second parameter. Then, it will return the current value of the column modifier:

if( $table->string( 'code' )->opt( 'charset' ) === 'utf8' ) {
	// The "code" columns uses UTF-8 charset (MySQL only)
}

Changing columns

It’s possible to change most column modifiers like the length of a string column:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code' )->length( 64 );
} );

Some methods also offer additional parameters to set most often used modifiers directly:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code', 64 );
} );

If you need to change the column modifiers immediately because you want to migrate the rows afterwards, use the up() method to persist the changes:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'code', 64 )->null( true )->up();
	// modify rows from "test" table
} );

Changing the column type is possible by using the new method for the appropriate type or the col() method:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->text( 'code' );
	// or
	$table->col( 'code', 'text' );
} );

Be aware that not all column types can be changed into another type or at least not without data loss. You can change an INTEGER column to a BIGINT column without problem but the other way round will fail. The same happens if you want to change a VARCHAR column (string) into an INTEGER column.

Renaming columns

If a table object is already available, you can use its renameColumn() method to rename one or more columns:

$this->db()->table( 'testtable', function( $table ) {
	// single column
	$table->renameColumn( 'label', 'name' );

	// multiple columns
	$table->renameColumn( ['label' => 'name', 'stat' => 'status'] );
} );

It’s also possible to rename columns directly, using the renameColumn() method of the DB schema:

// single column
$this->db()->renameColumn( 'testtable', 'label', 'name' );

// multiple columns
$this->db()->renameColumn( 'testtable', ['label' => 'name', 'stat' => 'status'] );

Dropping columns

To drop columns, use the dropColumn() method from the DB schema object:

$this->db()->dropColumn( 'users', 'name' );

You can drop several columns at once if you pass the name of all columns you want to drop as array:

$this->db()->dropColumn( 'users', ['name', 'status'] );

If you already have a table object, you can use dropColumn() too:

// single column
$table->dropColumn( 'name' );

// multiple columns
$table->dropColumn( ['name', 'status'] );

In all cases, columns are only removed if they exist. No error is reported if one or more columns doesn’t exist in the table.

Column methods

Column::__call()

Calls custom methods or passes unknown method calls to the Doctrine column object

public function __call( string $method, array $args )

Examples:

You can register custom methods that have access to the class properties of the Upscheme Column object:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Column::macro( 'platform', function( array $options ) {
	return $this->to->setPlatformOptions( $options );
} );

$column->platform( ['option' => 'value'] );

Available class properties are:

$this->db
Upscheme DB object
$this->table
Doctrine table schema
$this->column
Doctrine column schema

Furthermore, you can call any Doctrine column method directly, e.g.:

$column->setPlatformOptions( ['option' => 'value'] );

Column::__get()

Returns the value for the given column option

public function __get( string $name )

The list of available column options are:

Examples:

$charset = $column->charset;

// same as
$charset = $column->opt( 'charset' );

Column::__set()

Sets the new value for the given column option

public function __set( string $name, $value )

The list of available column options are:

Examples:

$column->charset = 'utf8';

// same as
$column->opt( 'charset', 'utf8' );

Column::autoincrement()

Sets the column as autoincrement or returns the current value

public function autoincrement( bool $value = null )

This method is an alias for the seq() method.

Examples:

$value = $column->autoincrement();
$column->autoincrement( true );

Column::charset()

Sets the column charset or returns the current value

public function charset( string $value = null )

Examples:

$comment = $column->charset();
$column->charset( 'utf8' );

Column::collation()

Sets the column collation or returns the current value

public function collation( string $value = null )

Examples:

$comment = $column->collation();
$column->collation( 'binary' );

Column::comment()

Sets the column comment or returns the current value

public function comment( string $value = null )

Examples:

$comment = $column->comment();
$column->comment( 'column comment' );

Column::default()

Sets the column default value or returns the current value

public function default( $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->default();
$column->default( 0 );

Column::fixed()

Sets the column fixed flag or returns the current value

public function fixed( bool $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->fixed();
$column->fixed( true );

Column::index()

Creates a regular index for the column

public function index( string $name = null ) : self

Examples:

$column->index();
$column->index( 'idx_col' );

Column::length()

Sets the column length or returns the current value

public function length( int $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->length();
$column->length( 32 );

Column::name()

Returns the name of the column

public function name() : string

Examples:

$name = $column->name();

Column::null()

Sets the column null flag or returns the current value

public function null( bool $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->null();
$column->null( true );

Column::opt()

Sets the column option value or returns the current value

public function opt( string $option, $value = null, $for = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->opt( 'length' );
$column->opt( 'length', 64 );

Column::precision()

Sets the column precision or returns the current value

public function precision( int $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->precision();
$column->precision( 10 );

Column::primary()

Creates a primary index for the column

public function primary( string $name = null ) : self

Examples:

$column->primary();
$column->primary( 'pk_col' );

Column::scale()

Sets the column scale or returns the current value

public function scale( int $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->scale();
$column->scale( 3 );

Column::seq()

Sets the column as autoincrement or returns the current value

public function seq( bool $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->seq();
$column->seq( true );

Column::spatial()

Creates a spatial index for the column

public function spatial( string $name = null ) : self

Examples:

$column->spatial();
$column->spatial( 'idx_col' );

Column::type()

Sets the column type or returns the current value

public function type( string $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->type();
$column->type( 'tinyint' );

Column::unique()

Creates an unique index for the column

public function unique( string $name = null ) : self

Examples:

$column->unique();
$column->unique( 'unq_col' );

Column::unsigned()

Sets the column unsigned flag or returns the current value

public function unsigned( bool $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $column->unsigned();
$column->unsigned( true );

Column::up()

Applies the changes to the database schema

public function up() : self

Examples:

$column->up();

Foreign keys

Creating foreign keys

Upscheme offers support for foreign key constraints, which enforce the integrity of data between two tables. For example, if the parentid column of the users_address table references the id column of the users table, there can be no rows in the users_address table without a matching row in the users table. Calling the foreign() method will create such a constraint:

$this->db()->table( 'users', function( $table ) {
	$table->id();
} );

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users' );
} );

Note: The column (parentid) will and must have the same data type and column modifiers as the referenced column (id). The foreign() method ensures that and will create a new index with the same name as the foreign key constraint automatically.

If the ID column in the users table is named differently, pass its name as third parameter to the foreign() method:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users', 'uid' );
} );

It’s recommended to pass the name of the foreign key constraint as forth parameter so it’s easier to change or drop constraints later:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users', 'id', 'fk_test_pid' );
} );

In case there’s more than one column required to get the unique values required by foreign keys, pass the column names as array:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( ['parentid', 'siteid'], 'users_address', ['id', 'siteid'] );
} );

Foreign key constraints can perform different actions if the referenced column in the foreign table is deleted of updated. The standard action is to restrict deleting the row or updating the referenced ID value. To change the behaviour, use the onDelete() and onUpdate() methods:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users' )->onDelete( 'SET NULL' )->onUpdate( 'RESTRICT' );
} );

There’s a shortcut if you want to set both values to the same value:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users' )->do( 'SET NULL' );
} );

Possible values for both methods are:

The default action when deleting or updating rows is CASCADE so the values of the foreign key column are updated to the same values as in the foreign table.

Checking foreign key existence

To check if a foreign key already exists, use the hasForeign() method:

if( $this->db()->hasForeign( 'users_address', 'fk_usrad_parentid' ) ) {
    // The "fk_usrad_parentid" foreign key in the "users_address" table exists
}

It’s also possible checking for several foreign key constraints at once. Then, the hasForeign() method will only return TRUE if all constraints exist in the tables passed as first argument:

if( $this->db()->hasForeign( 'users_address', ['fk_usrad_parentid', 'fk_usrad_siteid'] ) ) {
    // The "fk_usrad_parentid" and "fk_usrad_siteid" foreign keys exist in the "users_address" table
}

If a table object available, the hasForeign() method of the table can be used instead:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->hasForeign( 'fk_usrad_parentid' ) ) {
	    // The "fk_usrad_parentid" foreign key in the "users_address" table exists
	}
} );

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->hasForeign( ['fk_usrad_parentid', 'fk_usrad_siteid'] ) ) {
	    // The "fk_usrad_parentid" and "fk_usrad_siteid" foreign keys exist in the "users_address" table
	}
} );

In case you need the current values of an existing constraint:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$fk = $table->foreign( 'parentid', 'users' );

	// returns the name of the constraint
	$name = $fk->name()

	// returns the action when deleting rows
	$action = $fk->onDelete;

	// returns the action when updating the foreign ID
	$action = $fk->onUpdate;
} );

Dropping foreign keys

To remove a foreign key constraint from a table, use the dropForeign() method and pass the name of the table and foreign key name as arguments:

$this->db()->dropForeign( 'users_address', 'fk_usrad_parentid' );

You can also pass several foreign key names to drop them at once:

$this->db()->dropForeign( 'users_address', ['fk_usrad_parentid', 'fk_usrad_siteid'] );

Within the anonymous function passed to the table() method, you can also use the dropForeign() method:

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->dropForeign( 'fk_usrad_parentid' );
} );

$this->db()->table( 'users_address', function( $table ) {
	$table->dropForeign( ['fk_usrad_parentid', 'fk_usrad_siteid'] );
} );

Foreign key methods

Foreign::__call()

Calls custom methods

public function __call( string $method, array $args )

Examples:

You can register custom methods that have access to the class properties of the Upscheme Foreign object:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Foreign::macro( 'default', function() {
	$this->opts = ['onDelete' => 'SET NULL', 'onUpdate' => 'SET NULL'];
} );

$foreign->default();

Available class properties are:

$this->dbaltable
Doctrine table schema
$this->table
Upscheme Table object
$this->localcol
Local column name or names
$this->fktable
Foreign table name
$this->fkcol
Foreign column name or names
$this->name
Foreign key name
$this->opts
Associative list of foreign key options (mainly “onDelete” and “onUpdate”)

Foreign::__get()

Returns the value for the given foreign key option

public function __get( string $name )

The list of available foreign key options are:

Possible values for both options are:

Examples:

$value = $foreign->onDelete;
// same as
$value = $foreign->opt( 'onDelete' );

Foreign::__set()

Sets the new value for the given Foreign key option

public function __set( string $name, $value )

The list of available Foreign key options are:

Possible values for both options are:

Examples:

$foreign->onDelete = 'SET NULL';
// same as
$foreign->onDelete( 'SET NULL' );
$foreign->opt( 'onDelete', 'SET NULL' );

Foreign::do()

Sets the new value for the given Foreign key option

public function do( string $action ) : self

Possible actions are:

Examples:

$foreign->do( 'RESTRICT' );

Foreign::name()

public function name()

Examples:

$fkname = $foreign->name();

Foreign::onDelete()

public function onDelete( string $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $foreign->onDelete();

$foreign->onDelete( 'SET NULL' );
// same as
$foreign->onDelete = 'SET NULL';
// same as
$foreign->opt( 'onDelete', 'SET NULL' );

$foreign->onDelete( 'SET NULL' )->onUpdate( 'SET NULL' );

Foreign::onUpdate()

public function onUpdate( string $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $foreign->onUpdate();

$foreign->onUpdate( 'SET NULL' );
// same as
$foreign->onUpdate = 'SET NULL';
// same as
$foreign->opt( 'onUpdate', 'SET NULL' );

$foreign->onUpdate( 'SET NULL' )->onDelete( 'SET NULL' );

Foreign::up()

public function up() : self

Examples:

$foreign->up();

Sequences

Adding sequences

A few database implementations offer sequences instead of auto-increment/identity columns, namely Oracle and PostgreSQL. Sequences are functions which create sequentially increasing numbers that are applied to a table column when inserting new rows. To create a new sequence named seq_test use the sequence() method:

$this->db()->sequence( 'seq_test' );

To use a different start value and step width than 1, call the start() and step() methods:

$this->db()->sequence( 'seq_test', function( $seq ) {
	$seq->start( 1000 )->step( 2 );
} );

Checking sequence existence

To check if a sequence already exists, use the hasSequence() method:

if( $this->db()->hasSequence( 'seq_test' ) ) {
    // The "seq_test" sequence exists
}

It’s also possible checking for several sequences at once. Then, the hasSequence() method will only return TRUE if all sequences exist:

if( $this->db()->hasSequence( ['seq_id', 'seq_test'] ) ) {
    // The "seq_id" and "seq_test" sequences exist
}

In case you need to know the current values of the table options:

$this->db()->sequence( 'seq_test', function( $seq ) {
	// returns how many generated numbers are cached
	$cache = $seq->cache;

	// returns the number the sequence has started from
	$start = $seq->start;

	// returns the step width for newly generated numbers
	$step = $seq->step;
} );

Dropping sequences

To remove a sequence, use the dropSequence() method and pass the name of the sequence as argument:

$this->db()->dropSequence( 'seq_id' );

You can also pass several sequence names to drop them at once:

$this->db()->dropSequence( ['seq_id', 'seq_test'] );

Sequence methods

Sequence::__call()

Calls custom methods or passes unknown method calls to the Doctrine table object

public function __call( string $method, array $args )

Examples:

You can register custom methods that have access to the class properties of the Upscheme Sequence object:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Sequence::macro( 'default', function() {
	$this->start( 1 )->step( 2 );
} );

$sequence->default();

Available class properties are:

$this->db
Upscheme DB object
$this->sequence
Doctrine sequence schema

Sequence::__get()

Returns the value for the given sequence option

public function __get( string $name )

Examples:

$value = $sequence->getInitialValue();
// same as
$value = $sequence->start();

Sequence::__set()

Sets the new value for the given sequence option

public function __set( string $name, $value )

Examples:

$value = $sequence->setInitialValue( 1000 );
// same as
$value = $sequence->start( 1000 );

Sequence::cache()

Sets the cached size of the sequence or returns the current value

public function cache( int $value = null )

Examples:

$value = $sequence->cache();
$sequence->cache( 100 );

Sequence::name()

Returns the name of the sequence

public function name()
$name = $sequence->name();

Sequence::start()

Sets the new start value of the sequence or returns the current value

public function start( int $value = null )
$value = $sequence->start();
$sequence->start( 1000 );

Sequence::step()

Sets the step size of new sequence values or returns the current value

public function step( int $value = null )
$value = $sequence->step();
$sequence->step( 2 );

Sequence::up()

Applies the changes to the database schema

public function up() : self
$sequence->up();

Indexes

Indexes speed up database queries and the time a query needs can drop from several minutes to milliseconds if used correctly. There are several index types available:

All indexes can consist of one or more columns but the order of the columns has a great impact if indexes are used for a query or not.

Adding indexes

All indexes are bound to the table which contains the columns the index covers. The simplest way to create an index over a single column is to use the index() method of the column object:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'label' )->index();
} );

The second parameter of the index() method allows you to set a custom name for the index:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->string( 'label' )->index( 'idx_test_label' );
} );

Note: For a maximum compatibility between different database types, the length of the index names should be 30 characters or less.

The same is possible for primary, unique and spatial indexes:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	// primary key
	$table->int( 'id' )->primary();
	$table->int( 'id' )->primary( 'pk_test_id' ); // ignored by MySQL, MariaDB, etc.

	// unique key
	$table->string( 'code' )->unique();
	$table->string( 'code' )->unique( 'unq_test_code' );

	// spatial index
	$table->col( 'location', 'point' )->spatial();
	$table->col( 'location', 'point' )->spatial( 'idx_test_location' );
} );

For multi-column indexes, the primary(), unique() and index() methods are available in the table object:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	// primary composite index
	$table->primary( ['siteid', 'code'] );

	// unique composite index
	$table->unique( ['parentid', 'type'] );

	// regular composite index
	$table->index( ['label', 'status'] );
} );

Spatial indexes can NOT span multiple columns but creating them is also possible using the spatial() method of the table object:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->spatial( 'location' );
} );

Checking index existence

To check if an index already exists, use the hasIndex() method:

if( $this->db()->hasIndex( 'users', 'idx_users_name' ) ) {
    // The "idx_users_name" index in the "users" table exists
}

You can check for several indexes at once too. In that case, the hasIndex() method will only return TRUE if all indexes exist:

if( $this->db()->hasIndex( 'users', ['idx_users_name', 'idx_users_status'] ) ) {
    // The "idx_users_name" and "idx_users_status" indexes in the "users" table exists
}

If you already have a table object, you can use hasIndex() as well:

if( $table->hasIndex( 'idx_users_name' ) ) {
    // The "idx_users_name" index in the table exists
}

if( $table->hasIndex( ['idx_users_name', 'idx_users_status'] ) ) {
    // The "idx_users_name" and "idx_users_status" indexes in the table exists
}

Renaming indexes

To rename indexes directly, using the renameIndex() method of the DB schema:

// single index
$this->db()->renameIndex( 'testtable', 'idx_test_label', 'idx_test_name' );

// multiple indexes
$this->db()->renameIndex( 'testtable', ['idx_test_label' => 'idx_test_name', 'idx_text_stat' => 'idx_test_status'] );

If a table object is already available, you can use its renameIndex() method to rename one or more indexes:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	// single index
	$table->renameIndex( 'idx_test_label', 'idx_test_name' );

	// multiple indexes
	$table->renameIndex( ['idx_test_label' => 'idx_test_name', 'idx_text_stat' => 'idx_test_status'] );
} );

Dropping indexes

To drop indexes, use the dropIndex() method from the DB schema object:

$this->db()->dropIndex( 'users', 'idx_test_name' );

You can drop several indexes at once if you pass the name of all indexes you want to drop as array:

$this->db()->dropIndex( 'users', ['idx_test_name', 'idx_test_status'] );

If you already have a table object, you can use dropIndex() too:

// single index
$table->dropIndex( 'idx_test_name' );

// multiple indexes
$table->dropIndex( ['idx_test_name', 'idx_test_status'] );

In all cases, indexes are only removed if they exist. No error is reported if one or more indexes doesn’t exist in the table.

Custom index naming

It’s not necessary to pass a custom index name when creating new indexes. Then, the index name is generated automatically but their name will consist of a hash that is hard to read. Also, you don’t know which columns the indexes span from the index name.

Upscheme allows you to add your own naming function for indexes which is used if not index name is passed to the methods for creating indexes. Before running the migrations, register your nameing function using the macro() method in the table objects:

use \Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table;

Table::marco( 'nameIndex', function( string $table, array $columns, string $type ) {
	return $type . '_' . $table . '_' . join( '_', $columns );
} );

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Up::use( $config, './migrations/' )->up()

For a table “testtable”, a column “label” and the type “idx”, this will return idx_testtable_label instead of a hash.

Available index types are:

Note: For compatibility to all supported database types, the maximum length of the index names must be not longer than 30 characters!

Customizing Upscheme

Adding custom methods

You can add new methods to all Upscheme objects using the macro() method. Each custom method has access to the class properties and methods of the class it’s registered for including the Doctrine DBAL objects.

To register a method named test() in the DB schema object with two parameters $arg1 and $arg2 which has access to the same class properties as the DB __call() method use:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\DB::marco( 'test', function( $arg1, $arg2 ) {
	// $this->conn : Doctrine connection
	// $this->from : Doctrine start schema
	// $this->to : Doctrine current schema
	// $this->up : Upscheme object
	// return $this or a value
} );

$db->test( 'key', 'value' );

Registering a method test() in the Table schema object with one parameter $arg1 which has access to the same class properties as the Table __call() method use:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table::marco( 'test', function( $arg1 ) {
	// $this->db : Upscheme DB object
	// $this->table : Doctrine Table object
	// return $this or a value
} );

$table->test( 'something' );

Same for a method test() in the Column schema object with an optional parameter $value which has access to the same class properties as the Column __call() method use:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Column::marco( 'test', function( $value = null ) {
	// $this->db : Upscheme DB object
	// $this->table : Upscheme Table object
	// $this->column : Doctrine Column object
	// return $this or a value
} );

$column->test();

To extend the Foreign object for foreign key constraints with a test() method with no parameter having access to the same class properties as the Foreign __call() method use:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Foreign::marco( 'test', function() {
	// $this->table : Upscheme Table object
	// $this->dbaltable : Doctrine Table object
	// $this->localcol : Array of local column names
	// $this->fktable : Foreign table name
	// $this->fkcol : Foreign table column names
	// $this->name : Foreign key name
	// $this->opts : Array of foreign key options ("onDelete" and "onUpdate")
	// return $this or a value
} );

$foreign->test();

Finally, extending the Sequence object with a test() method having no parameters and access to the same class properties as the Sequence __call() method use:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Sequence::marco( 'test', function() {
	// $this->db : Upscheme DB object
	// $this->sequence : Doctrine Sequence object
	// return $this or a value
} );

$sequence->test();

Implementing custom columns

Instead of calling the col() method of the Table object with all parameters and modifiers each time, you can create your own shortcut methods, e.g.:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table::marco( 'utinyint', function( string $name ) {
	return $this->col( $name, 'tinyint' )->unsigned( true );
} );

It’s also possible to create several columns at once if you want to add them to several tables:

\Aimeos\Upscheme\Schema\Table::marco( 'defaults', function() {
	$this->id();
	$this->datetime( 'ctime' );
	$this->datetime( 'mtime' );
	$this->string( 'editor' );
	return $this;
} );

Then, use your custom methods when creating or updating tables:

$this->db()->table( 'test', function( $table ) {
	$table->defaults();
	$table->utinyint( 'status' );
} );